Mitochondrial DNA is the small circular chromosome found inside mitochondria. The mitochondria are organelles found in cells that are the sites of energy production. The mitochondria, and thus mitochondrial DNA, are passed from mother to offspring.
Inside the mitochondrion is a certain type of DNA. This is totally different in every way from the DNA that’s in the nucleus.
This DNA is small and circular. It has only 16,500 or so base pairs in it. And it encodes different proteins that are specific for the mitochondria. The pathways that are within the mitochondrion are essential for producing energy. Some of the enzymes in those pathways, and some of the proteins that are needed to function in those pathways, are produced by the mitochondrial DNA. The mitochondrial DNA is critically important for many of the pathways that produce energy within the mitochondria. And if there’s a defect in some of those mitochondrial DNA bases, that is to say a mutation, you will have a mitochondrial disease, which will involve the inability to produce sufficient energy in any organ like the muscle and the brain, and the kidney. Mitochondrial DNA, unlike nuclear DNA, is inherited from the mother, while nuclear DNA is inherited from both parents
We get 50% of nuclear DNA from the mother and 50% from the father.
But we get 100% mitochondrial DNA from the mother. Mitochondria and their DNA only come from the mother to the baby. This has been going on since the Genesis of human life. Mitochondria produce ATP. ATP is the source of energy in our body. So, we receive the ability to generate energy or power only from our mother. And our mother gets it from her mother and our father also gets it from his mother.
This is very interesting that in Hinduism the Goddess of power is mother – Adi Shakti or Adi Parashakti, our primal mother. The scientific understanding over the ages and years is very clear.
All the Vedic poojas and yajnas and the perfect mantras worshipping Mahishasur Mardini (Durga) thus work on a subtle level to excite and empower us.